हिंदी संस्करण
RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS
Technologies/Methodologies Developed
  • Survey methodology for AnGR characterization- Widely used for breed Documentation
  • In-situ conservation model-Used by SAUs, SAH departments and development agecies
  • Digitized database on AnGR-Widely used in decision support
  • Test for fecundity gene in sheep used for identification of prolific animals
  • Standard karyotypes of livestock species- Used widely to screen chromosomal abnormalities as diagnostic tools for detecting genetic disorders in breeding bulls
  • Molecular diversity analysis-Standardized protocol for establishment of genetic relationship among different breeds of a species has been developed
  • Breed assignment based on microsatellite genotyping-Assignment of individuals to breeds/populations
  • New single universal sex determination methodology in 6 bovid species by single universal duplex PCR
  • Parentage verification kits: Developed for cattle, buffalo, goat and camel while one kit can resolve parentage and related issues in all ruminant livestock species-cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep yak and mithun
  • Non-invasive tool to study molecular aspects of lactation biology in buffalo and native cattle
  • Isolation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) from milk of cattle and buffalo
  • PCR based differentiation of cattle and buffalo meat and milk
  • PCR-RFLP and tetra-ARMS PCR based genotyping of novel SNPs identified in TLRs and other functional genes for association studies in buffalo and goats
Characterization of AnGR
Majority of the indigenous breeds of various species have been characterized phenotypically as well as genetically. The current status of breeds characterized and documented is given below:
Species Defined Breeds
Characterization
Documentation
Phenotypic Genetic
Cattle43373526
Buffalo15121213
Goat34232323
Sheep43353725
Camel09040401
Horse07060603
Chicken19141513
Yak01------
Mithun--------
Pig08020201
Donkey02010101
Duck01010101
Geese01010101
Characterization Major Genes
Candidate gene characterization for growth, production,immune response and heat regulation revealed polymorphisms at nucleotide level. A number of SNPs have been identified at diffrent gene loci in different farm species.
Cattle:
Myostatin, osteopontin, growth hormone receptor, growth hormone releasing hormone receptor, interleukins, insulin like growth factors, butyrophilin1, 3, beta lactoglobulin, prolactin, pituitary-specific transcription factor 1, kappa-casein, beta-casein, alpha S1 casein, alpha S2 casein, bovine growth hormone, alpha lactalbumin, monocyte chemotactic protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, heat shock protein 70, pitutary transcription factor 1, diacylgylcerolacetyl transferase, toll-like receptors (1-10), heat shock protein gene 70.2, glucose transporter genes etc.
Buffalo:
Myostatin, osteopontin, growth hormone receptor, growth hormone releasing hormone receptor, leptin, ABCG2, milk caseins, lactoglobulins, interleukins, mammary derived growth inhibitor, beta lactoglobulin,heat shock protein 70, thyroglobulin, insulin like growth factor-1, calpastatin, heat shock protein 70, peptidoglycan recognition protein, haptoglobin, fatty acid synthase, calpain, calpastatin, lactoferrin,toll-like receptors 1-10 genes, leptin, stanniocalcin, nod-like receptors 1 & 2, ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2, CXC motif receptor 2, major histocompatibility complex DQ& DR, suppressor of tumorigenicity protein 7, pentraxin 3, serum amyloid A1, S100 calcium binding protein A8, tumour necrosis factor alpha, diacylglycerolacetyl transferase etc.
Sheep:
Boroola, growth hormone, type I intermediate filament wool keratin, B2C high wool sulphur protein, ovine cysteine and histidine rich protein, bone morphogenetic protein 15 beta-lactoglobulin, growth differentiation factor 8, calpain, β3 adrenergic receptor, growth hormone receptor, titin, calpastatin, fatty acid binding protein 3, prolactin receptor, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 etc.
Goat:
Leptin, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, calpastatin, bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, bone morphogenetic protein 4, growth differentiation factor 9, inhibin βB gene, G protein coupled receptor, kisspeptin, toll-like receptors- TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7 & TLR8, nod-like receptor, calpain 1, aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase, peptidoglycan recognition protein 1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, SREBP cleavage-activating protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, oxidized LDL receptor, prolactin, signal transducers and activators of transcription, diacylglycerolacetyl transferase etc.
Yak and Mithun:
Alpha casein, acytl co-A and lipoprotein lipase, thyroglobulin, MHC class II DQ and DR genes, TNF-alpha, haptoglobin etc.
Functional Genomics
  • Buffalo draft genome assembly constructed using the cattle genome (Btau 4.0 assembly) as a reference.The assembly has read depth of 17-19X. The buffalo assembly represents ~ 91%-95% coverage in comparison to the cattle assembly Btau 4.0.
  • Establishment of transcriptome signature of buffalo mammary gland during lactation, involution and heifer physiological stages and identification of stage specific genes and pathways.
  • Milk transcriptome profile of Sahiwal cows.
  • Transcriptional profiling of fecundity related genes and folliculogenesis in FecB carrier and non-carrier ewes as well as FecB carrier sheep under high and low nutritional regimes.
  • Tissue distribution profiling of selected genes in buffalo and goat.
  • EST libraries from buffalo mammary gland- More than 1200 sequences generated
  • RNASeq based sequences from different tissues- (More than 20 lakhs); Dromedarian camel- 5.8 lakhs, Bactrian camel- 3.6 lakhs; Buffalo- 6.0 lakhs; Goat- 4.6 lakhs
  • QTLs- Buffalo growth related, milk composition and milk yield QTLs identified on eight different chromosomes.
  • Around 8.5 lakh SNPs generated from 12 breeds of buffalo.
Conservation of AnGR
Ex-situ Conservation
  • A total of about 1,28,074 cryo-preserved semen doses representing important and endangered breeds of seven species (Cattle, Buffalo, Goat, Sheep, Camel, Equine and Yak) are being maintained in the National Gene Bank.
  • Animal Genomic Resource Bank is established which has collection of DNA samples of almost 80% of the Indian breeds of various livestock species.
In-situ Conservation
  • In-situ model of conservation has been developed by providing technical inputs and incentives to the farmers/breeders in the breeding tract of respective breeds and has been adopted under Network Project through the State Agricultural and Veterinary universities/ State Animal Husbandry Departments/ ICAR Institutes and NGOs.
  • Under in situ conservation project, Gaushalas located in Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh have been examined to advocate a proper prototype for recording, maintaining, enhancing and conservation of indigenous cattle breeds. A new model 10P was developed to produce young bulls from purebred cows in an open nucleus manner within the Gaushalas.